- New Covenant Theology -

Introductions to New Covenant Theology
Covenant Theology & Dispensationalism contrasted with N.C.T.
The Law & The Christian / The SabbathTithing & Giving
The Debate Over New Covenant Theology
New Section

 New Covenant Web Sites

(Updated 05/05/06 )


"Which things contain an allegory: for these [women] are two covenants; one from mount Sinai, bearing children unto bondage, which is Hagar. Now this Hagar is mount Sinai in Arabia and answereth to the Jerusalem that now is: for she is in bondage with her children. But the Jerusalem that is above is free, which is our mother." Galatians 4:24-26

Are the Old and New Covenants two administration of the one "Covenant of Grace" (Covenant Theology)? Are they two different dispensations with two distinct ways of salvation, peoples of God, and promises (Dispensationalism)?

God has maintained one eternal purpose in Christ which has been expressed through a multiplicity of distinct historical covenants. Prominent among these are the Old Covenant (also known as the Mosaic or First Covenant) and the New Covenant. The former, confined to the people of Israel alone, was established while that nation was assembled before Mt. Sinai and was later made obsolete through its fulfillment by the life and death of Jesus the Messiah. It was comprised wholly of shadows pointing ultimately to Jesus and His body, the Church. Therefore, the age in which it remained operative was at all times a period of immaturity as compared to the age of fulfillment which was inaugurated with Christ's first advent.

Semper Reformata - Solo Christo's Reformation Statement

 Introductions to New Covenant Theology


  1. The Revelation of the Glory of God in the Face of Jesus Christ ~ Murray McLellan (Introduction to the heart of NCT).

  2. New Covenant Theology Distinctives ~ Gary Long

  3. Defining New Covenant Theology ~ Geoff Volker and Mike Adams

  4. The New Covenant in Promise and Fulfillment ~ Randy Seiver

  5. Two Covenants: Old and New ~ Mark LaVoie

  6. Paragraphs 16-21 of Solo Christo's Statement of Faith

  7. Introducing New Covenant Theology: Defining, Distinguishing, and Advancing a new Hermeneutic ~ Kevin Hartley (Online Book)

  8. Kevin Hartley's Series on New Covenant Theology
    1. New Covenant Theology and Redemptive History
    2. New Covenant Theology and Israel
    3. New Covenant Theology and Eschatology
    4. New Covenant Theology and Ecclesiology
    5. Creation, Covenant, and Eden
 Contemporary Views contrasted with NCT


        Recommended Initial Reading

  1. An Examination Of The Presuppositions Of Covenant And Dispensational Theology ~ Jon Zens
  2. The New Covenant in Promise and Fulfillment ~ Randy Seiver
  3. The Cross: The Heart of New Covenant Theology ~ Randal Seiver
  4. Abrahamic Covenant A Study of Biblical Covenants and Baptism ~ William Payne
  5. Anabaptists and the New Covenant ~ David M. Moffitt
  6. Abraham's Four Seeds ~ John Reisinger
       Chapter 1 - The Importance of Abraham's Seed
       Chapter 2 - Who is Abraham's Seed?
       Chapter 3 - Abraham's Natural Seed
       Chapter 4 - Abraham's Spiritual Seed
       Chapter 5 - Abraham's Unique Seed
       Chapter 6 - Abraham's Unique Seed Continued - Acts 2
       Chapter 7 - Abraham's Special Natural Seed - Israel
       Chapter 8 - To Whom are the Covenant Promises Made?
       Chapter 9 - The Content of the Abrahamic Covenant
       Chapter 10 - Who Then is Abraham's True Seed?
       Chapter 11 - Who is the "Great Nation?"
       Appendix 1 - Covenant Theology
       Appendix 2 - Dispensationalism
       Appendix 3 - Covenant Theology's "Two Administrations"
       Appendix 4 - Acts 2:39 and Infant Baptism
  7. The Theology of Fulfillment ~ Fred Zaspel
  8. The Old Creation in Adam - The New Creation in Christ ~ Randal Seiver

        Covenant Theology

  1. Is There A "Covenant Of Grace?" ~ Jon Zens
  2. Christ's Children of Promise: A New Covenant Theological Rebuttal to Covenant Theology ~ Mike McHugh
  3. In Defense of the New Covenant ~ Mike Adams
    A written response to Richard Barcellos' book, In Defense of the Decalogue: A Critique of New Covenant Theology

        Israel and The Church

"But you are A CHOSEN RACE, A royal  PRIESTHOOD, A HOLY NATION, A PEOPLE FOR God's OWN POSSESSION, so that you may proclaim the excellencies of Him who has called you out of darkness into His marvelous light" 1 Peter 2:9

Who are God's special people? Was Old Testament Israel the Church prior to Christ's coming (Covenant Theology)? Does Israel and the Church have distinct promises and futures (Dispensationalism)?

As nation redeemed from bondage in Egypt by the hand of God, Israel of old served to foreshadow the new Israel of God redeemed from sin's bondage by the blood of Christ, the Lamb of God. 

The Church now stands as that which Old Covenant Israel foreshadowed as the True Israel. The Church stands in that place of fulfillment as the pure and spotless Bride, the fruitful nation, the "heavenly Jerusalem," the "city of God," the "one new man" comprised of both Jew and Gentile, which alone shall receive all the blessings promised throughout the Old Testament by virtue of its relation to Jesus Christ, the seed of Abraham.

Semper Reformata - Solo Christo's Reformation Statement

  1. A New Covenant Critique of Dispensationalism ~ Regan Ewing
  2. Today's Israel: Is God On Her Side? ~ Jon Zens
  3. Romans 9-11: Israel, Unsubmitted to God's Righteousness ~ Jon Zens
  4. A Response to John MacArthur on “Dispensationalism and God's Plan for Israel” ~ Steve Lehrer  
  5. Israel: An Unbelieving People ~ Steve Lehrer
  6. John 15: The Dilemma of an Old Covenant Jew ~ Mike Adams
  7. Romans 11: A New Covenant Perspective ~ Steve Lehrer
  The Law And The Christian: By What Standard?


"Teacher, which is the great commandment in the Law?" And He said to him, " 'YOU SHALL LOVE THE LORD YOUR GOD WITH ALL YOUR HEART, AND WITH ALL YOUR SOUL, AND WITH ALL YOUR MIND.' "This is the great and foremost commandment. "The second is like it, 'YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR AS YOURSELF.'  "On these two commandments depend the whole Law and the Prophets." Matthew 22:36-40

Is there a standard for the believer's thoughts, words, and deeds? Is that standard summarized in the Ten Commandments? Is it summarized in the slogan "What would Jesus do"? How are we to view the laws contained in the Old Covenant?

The Old Covenant, containing a single, unified law code, was a legal, conditional covenant requiring perfect and complete obedience of all those under it. On the one hand, it promised life to all who obeyed it, and, on the other hand, it pronounced a curse upon all its transgressors. It therefore inescapably brought death to all who sought to be justified by it -- not because of a deficiency in the law (itself "holy, just, and good"), but because of the sinful inability of those under its charge. Its distinct purpose being to illumine sin so as to make manifest the Israelites' and, by implication, all men's need for a redeemer.

Under the New Covenant, God's people, having entered the age of fulfillment, now stand as mature sons. Having been set free from the tutelage and bondage of the law coded written upon tablets of stone, they have subsequently been placed under the Spirit's management -- having the new and greater Lawgiver's own law now written upon their hearts.

As a result, though many of the individual commandments given in the Decalogue and the eternal principles upon which the Mosaic Covenant was founded still apply to those under the New Covenant, God's people are now totally free from the Old Covenant as a covenant. The usefulness of the Mosaic commands is not therefore to be denied, only that these are now understood to come to us through Christ, the mediator of the New Covenant. In particular, with the obsolescence of the Old Covenant, the fourth commandment, the seventh day Sabbath observance, is no longer obligatory --- its relevance now pointing to that rest enjoyed by all those in Christ.

Semper Reformata - Solo Christo's Reformation Statement


        Recommended Initial Reading

  1. "As I Have Loved You" - John 13:34 The Starting point of Christian Obedience ~ Jon Zens
  2. Christian Obedience ~ Kevin Hartley (Note: We are trying to locate this article.)
  3. The Christian's Relationship To The Mosaic Law ~ Phillip Mauro
  4. The Continuing Relevance Of Divine Law ~ Fred G. Zaspel
  5. Crucial Thoughts On "Law" In The New Covenant ~ Jon Zens. A sequel to 'Is There A "Covenant Of Grace?".'
  6. New Covenant Theology and the Mosaic Law ~ Fred G. Zaspel
  7. Tablets of Stone ~ John Reisinger. A must read book
  8. Divine Law: A New Covenant Perspective ~ Fred G. Zaspel
  9. Rethinking Our Use of ‘Moral Law' ~ Mike Adams

        Additional Reading

  1. But I Say Unto You ~ John Reisinger. This serves as the sequel to "Tablets of Stone"
  2. The Law Established By The Faith Of Christ ~ William Huntington
  3. The Fullness of Time ~ Randall Seiver
  4. Legalism & Liberty ~ Randall Seiver
  5. The Torn Veil ~ Randy Seiver
  6. How Should We Use the Old Testament? ~ Jon Zens
  7. Of the Law and the Christian ~ John Bunyan
  8. The Coal heaver's Confessions ~ William Huntington
  9. The Believer's Rule Of Life ~ William Huntington
  10. Law Revealing Sin ~ Scott Richardson
  11. Gospel And Law In The Teaching of Christ ~ George B. Stevens
  12. "The Necessity of Upholding the Law" Romans 3:31 ~ Joe Terrell
  13. The Greatest Commandment ~ John G. Reisinger
  14. Paul, The Law, and Redemptive History ~ Steven Capenter
  15. Book Review of The Law & Its Fulfillment ~ Thomas Schreiner (Reviewed by Fred G. Zaspel, Published by JETS,Vol.38, No.4)
  16. "The Necessity of Upholding the Law" Romans 3:31 ~ Joe Terrell
  17. The Doctrine of Law and Grace Unfolded ~ John Bunyan
  18. The Law ~ D.M. Canright
  19. The Decalogue Examined ~ D.M. Canright
  20. The Two Covenants ~ D.M. Canright
  21. What Law are Christians Under? ~ D.M. Canright
  22. The Death of the Custodian ~ W. Carl Ketcherside
  23. The Two Covenants: Are Christians Under The Law of Moses? ~ R.C. Fuqua

        The Sabbath

    Initial Readings

  1. The New Covenant and the Observance of Days ~ Jon Zens
  2. John Bunyan on the Sabbath ~ John Reisinger
  3. Questions about the nature and perpetuity of the seventh-day sabbath ~ John Bunyan
  4. Sabbath Timeline ~ Shane Becker

    Additional Reading

  1. Jesus & the Sabbath ~ Fred Zaspel
  2. Luther & Calvin On The Sabbath
  3. The Christian Sabbath ~ Daniel Parks
    1. The Christian Sabbath - Part 1
    2. The Christian Sabbath - Part 2
    3. The Christian Sabbath - Part 3
    4. The Christian Sabbath - Part 4
    5. The Christian Sabbath - Part 5
    6. The Christian Sabbath - Part 6
    7. The Christian Sabbath - Part 7
    8. The Christian Sabbath - Part 8
    9. The Christian Sabbath - Part 9
    10. The Christian Sabbath - Part 10
    11. The Christian Sabbath - Part 11
    12. The Christian Sabbath - Part 12
    13. The Christian Sabbath - Part 13
  4. Six Views of the Sabbath ~ John G. Reisinger
  5. Are the Sabbath laws binding on Christians today? ~ John MacArthur
  6. Sabbath: Fulfilled in Christ ~ John Gill

        Tithing & Giving

  1. Tithing? A New Covenant Look At An Old Covenant Practice ~ Jon Zens
  2. Financial Giving & The Tithing Position Examined ~ Jon Zens
  3. Does God require me to give a tithe of all I earn? ~ John MacArthur
  4. Are Christians Supposed To Tithe? ~ Brian Anderson
  5. New Testament Giving ~ Brian Anderson 
  6. Old Testament Tithing vs. New Testament Giving ~ Brian Anderson 
  7. Giving & the New Covenant - is Tithing Required? ~ Steve Atkerson
 The Debate Over New Covenant Theology


        Debate over Defense of the Decalogue

The following debate centers over Barcello's book In Defense of the Decalogue: A Critique of New Covenant Theology. Barcellos is a Reformed Baptist who holds to Covenant Theology.

  1. Review of Richard Barcellos' Book Defense of the Decalogue: A Critique of New Covenant Theology ~ John Reisinger
            Part One - Introduction
            Part Two - The Preface 
            Part Three 
            Part Four - Chapter One

  2. In Defense of the New CovenantMike Adams
    A Theological Response to Richard Barcellos' Book Defense of the Decalogue: A Critique of New Covenant Theology. 
    Adobe Acrobat
    or Word 2000 version.

  3. A Response to Mike Adams's "In Defense of the New Covenant" ~ Greg Welty

  4. A Response to Greg Welty ~ Steve Lehrer
            Part 1
            Part 2
            Part 3
            Part 4

        Debate over Tabletalk

  1. The Death of the Decalogue From the September 2002 issue of Tabletalk ~ By Richard Barcellos

  2. An Open Letter to Dr. R.C. Sproul ~ John Reisinger

  3. Richard Barcellos Attacks New Covenant Theology in the September 2002 Issue of "Tabletalk" ~ Steve Lehrer

  4. Richard Barcellos and TableTalk: A Case Study in "Moral Law" ~ Mike Adams
    Also in Adobe Acrobat & Word 2000

        Debate over God's Righteous Kingdom 

The following debate centers over Chantry's book God's Righteous Kingdom: The Law's Connection with the Gospel. Chantry is a Reformed Baptist who holds to Covenant Theology.

  1. A Review Article of Walter Chantry's God's Righteous Kingdom: The Law's Connection with the Gospel ~ John Zens

  2. God's Kingdom Unrighteously Defended: A Review of Walter Chantry's God's Righteous Kingdom ~ John Reisinger and Randall Seiver

        Debate Over Theonomy 

Round Jay Rogers Bradley Finkbeiner
Opening Arguments For Theonomy Against Theonomy
Round One For Theonomy Against Theonomy
Round Two For Theonomy Against Theonomy
Round Three For Theonomy Against Theonomy
Round Four For Theonomy Against Theonomy
Closing Arguments For Theonomy Against Theonomy

        Other Debates

  1. Is John G. Reisinger an Antinomian? ~ Tom Wells

  2. Debate over Steve Lehrer's Israel: An Unbelieving People
    -Israel  An Unbelieving People ~ Steve Lehrer
    -A Response to Steve Lehrer's "Israel: An Unbelieving People" ~ By Greg Welty

  3. Debate over Greg Welty's The Problem with Radical Discontinuity
    -The Problem with Radical Discontinuity ~ Greg Welty

    -New Covenant Theology and the Unity of the Bible ~ Mike Adams, Bill Knaub, Geoff Volker, and Steve Lehrer

  4. A Book Review of "New Covenant Theology" ~ Richard C. Barcellos

  5. Israel the Church and Millennialism: A Premillennial Apologetic ~ Barry Homer
    Chapter Five "Israel - Seed of Abraham" (PDF) contains a dispensational response to John Reisinger's "Abraham's Four Seeds" 

 New Covenant Web Sites


  1. In-Depth Studies
  2. Searching Together
  3. Sola Gratia
  4. Sound of Grace
  5. Sovereign Grace Baptist Association - An Association of New Covenant Churches